HISTORY OF FRANCE|
Brief Summary Outline
** [Page is under development.] **
Gallo-Roman and Merovingian Eras
|49-52 BCE||Julius Caesar conquered Gaul.|
Caesar defeated the Veneti in 56 BCE. Caesar was repulsed by Vercingetorix in 52 BCE, but conquered the Gaul at Alesia, in the same year.
|Julius Caesar landed in Britain in 55 BCE.
First Gallic church and martyrs at Lyon (c.177).
|Roman Emperor Claudius invaded Britain 42 CE.|
Romans crushed Queen Boadicea's revolt in Britain 61.
Construction began on Hadrian's Wall 122.
Germanic invasions and Christian missionaries.|
First mention of 'Franks' as one of the Germanic tribes defeated by Romans under Aurelian (241).
[Emperor Aurelic defeated Franks near Mainz. (240?)]
St. Denis (Dionysius) sent(c.250) by Pope to Lutetis (Paris), where the 'bishop' Dionysius was beheaded (258?).
About the middle of the fourth century, Christian monasteries were established by St. Martin (c.316-397?) at Ligugé and by St. Honorat at Lérns. St. Martin became bishop of Tours and was buried there.
|Roman legions withdrew from Britain 410.|
Angles, Saxons and Jutes began to land in Britain 449.
|431||Clodion [Chlodio], leader of the Salian Franks led a revolt against Roman rule, and made Tournai his capital. He was defeated by the Roman general Aëtius. Merovius, a relative of Clodion, succeeded as chief of the Salians in 448.|
|451||The Franks unite behind Merovius with many other barbarians in Gaul, and under the Roman general Aëtius, they engage and defeat Attila 'the Hun' near Méry-sur-Seine; it is know as 'the battle of Châons' (451).|
Merovius' name was taken by the dynasty.
'The battle of Châons' is also called the battle of 'the Catalaunian Plains'. It ended a campaign that did not go well for Attila's Huns. The Huns had attempted to take Lutetia [Gallo-Roman Paris], but were repulsed by St. Genevieve. The Huns went on to besiege Orléans, but upon the advance of the Roman-Frankish coalition they broke off the seige. Attila withdrew to a position between Troyes and Châons [plains of Catalaunian] where he prepared for battle.
|456-481||Childéric succeeded his father, Meroveus.|
He was driven from the Franks and replaced by a Roman general, Aegidius. Childéric took refuge in Thuringia. After eight years, Childéric returned, re-establish his power, and married the queen of Thuringia. They had a son, Clovis.
|Barbarians invaded Rome (476) and overthrew the Emperor. This marked the 'fall' of the Roman Empire in the West.|
|481-511||CLOVIS (Cholodovech), King of the Salian Franks, inherited the kingship of the Franks, only one of many barbarian tribes in Gaul at the time.|
Clovis was 20 years old when he defeated (486) Syagrius, last 'Roman' near the latter's capital, Soissons.
Clovis married (493) Clotilda, a princess of the Burgundians and a Christian.
Clovis fought the Alemanni.
Clovis converted to Christanity in 496.
Clovis defeated and killed Alaric II at Vouillé (507), near Poitiers. Clovis moved his capital to Paris, and is considered the 'Founder of France'.
|511||Upon his death, Clovis' his kingdom was divided among his four sons: Childebert (d.558), Clothar (d.561), Chlodomir (k.524), and Theoderic (d.534). |
This date is considered by some as the begining of Middle Ages.
|558-561||CLOTHAR I, Clovis' son, began reign as sole king of the Franks.|
After Chlothar I's death, the monarchy was again divided into four kingdoms. Charibert, king of Paris died in 567, leaving three rulers: Guntram (d.593) ruled Burgundy and Orleans; Sigebert (d.573) ruled Austrasia, or eastern Franks; and Chilpéric I (d.584), as king of Soissons, ruled a mixed populations of Gallo-Romans, called Neustrains. Paris and Aquitania were to be shared by all three 'kings'.
Gregory of Tours (b.539-d.594) was the ninteenth bishop (consecrated in 573 [Sigibert was king]) of Tours and wrote the History of the Franks in Latin.
|During the Sixth Century Angles and Saxons conquored most of Celtic Britain, driving some Britons to the mountains in Wales. Other Britons emigrated across the channel to the Armorique Peninsula, where they became known as 'Bretons' and their land was called Bretagne (Brittany).
|613||CLOTHAR II, son of Chilpéric I and Fredegunde, ruthlessly seized lands of his uncles and cousins and united Austrsia and Burgundy. This climaxed considerable confusion between 561 and 613, wherein the violent Frankish queens Fredegunde (one of the wives of Chilpéric I) and Brunehilde (wife of Sigebert) played major roles. Clotaire II made Pépin I, 'le Vieux' ['the Elder'] de Landen, 'mayor of the palace' [major domus].
||St. Augustine (d.604) was sent in 597 to convert Britain, and became the first bishop of Canterbury. [This is not St. Augustine of Hippo (North Africa) who died in 430.]
Isidore of Seville wrote Etymologae (c.622).
|628||DAGOBERT I (628-39), succeeded to whole Frankish kingdom upon death of his father, Chlothar II. Abbey of St. Denis established.|
|c.636||Approximate time that French and German languages began to develop separately.|
|638||CLOVIS II (638-656), son of Dagobert I, became king of Neustria and Burgundy. After the death of his brother, Sigebert II (king of Austrasia, in 656, Clovis II is sole king of the Franks. His domaine went to three sons.|
|670||CHILDÉRIC II, son of Clovis II, king of Austrasia, and sole king of the Franks after the death of his brother, Chlothar III, king of Neustria and Burgundy in 670.|
Childeric II had two sons: Chilperic II (d.720) and Childéric III (deposed 752).
|673||THEODERIC [THIERRY] III became sole ruler after his brother, Childeric II's death, which also led to civil war.
Childéric II had two sons: Clovis III (d.695) and Childebert III (d.711). Chilbert III's son was Dagobert III (d.715). Dagobert III's son was Theoderic IV (d.737), king of Neustria and Burgundy.
|679-714||Pépin II, 'le Jeune' ['the Younger'] de Herstal, grandson of Pépin I, 'le Vieux', held the title as 'mayor of the palace', after his uncle Grimoald. The position became hereditary, and the family will be known as 'the Carolingians' after its most famous member, Charlemagne.|
|687 ||Pépin II, 'le Jeune de Herstal defeated rivals at Testry and united the Franks.
|690||CLOVIS IV became king of all Franks upon the death of his father, Theoderic III.|
|714-741||CHARLES MARTEL, natural son of Pépin II, 'le Jeune', became 'mayor of the palace' upon the death of his father (714).|
|716||CHILPÉRIC II .|
|721-737||THEODERIC [THIERRY] IV.||The 'Venerable Bede' completes his major work 731.|
|732||Charles Martel defeated the Arabs at at Moussais-la-Bataille (near Poitiers and a little farther from Tours, which is often the name given to the event). |
Pépin III, 'le Bref' ['the Short'], son of Charles Martel, inherited position as 'mayor of the palace' (741-752) upon his father's death.
|751||CHILDÉRIC III deposed, and end of Merovingian Dynasty.|
Carolingian Dynasty (751-986)
|751||PÉPIN III "le Bref" is chosen as King of the Franks.|
|768-814||CHARLEMANGE (son of Pépin III).|
[786-771 with Carloman].
The Pope crowned Charlemagne in 800 as 'Emperor of the West'. This contrasted with the Byzantine 'Eastern Empire'. Both 'empires' asserted to be heirs of the ancient Roman Empire.
|King Offa of Mercia considered 'overloard' of England 779.
It should be noted that there was not a 'Holy Roman Empire'. The expression 'Sacrum Imperium' was not introduced until 1157 by Frederic the 1st 'Barbarossa' (r.1152-1190), who was 'king of the Germans' and also held a title as 'emperor of the Romans', a German empire that did not include France.
|814-840||LOUIS I, 'le Pieux' .||
St. Benedict of Aniane led reform in French monasteries (c.779-821).
Egbert of Essex became first king of England (827).
Muslim conquest of Sicily (827).
|843||CHARLES 'le chauve' II.
Treaty of Verdun divided empire among grandsons of Charlemagne.
|Viking raiders began to settle in Britain 851.|
Alfred the Great's reign as king of England (871-899).
|877||LOUIS II 'le Bégue'.|
|884-887||CHARLES 'le Gros'.|
Charles 'le Gros' was deposed of the title of 'Emperor of the West'.
Following the deposition of Charles, the title of 'Emperor' was held by some minor Italian and Burgundian leaders. The Franks were no longer a formal part of the 'empire'. Some sources date the breakup of Charlemagne's empire to the 843 Treaty of Verdun. Various events, such as language dialects, during the ninth century separated the Franks from the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine River.|
|886||Paris replused siege of Vikings.|
|887||Eudes [Odo] 'Count of Paris' became king until 893.|
|893||CHARLES III 'le Simple'.|
|911||Treaty of St-Clair-sur-Epte established Normandy as a dukdom under the French king. The Viking Rollo was its first duke.|
|922 ||ROBERT Ier First of 'the Robertiens', forerunners of the Capetians.||Cluny Abbey founded (910).|
|923||Raoul duc de Bourgogne king for short time|
|936||LOUIS IV d'outre-mer.|
In 962, the distinctly German king/emperor Otto [Otton (Fr.)] I 'the Great' 'founded' an empire that included many German and Italian states, as well as Burgundy and some other small principalities. This would later be called the Sacrum Romanorum Imperium Nationis Germanicae ['Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation']. The kingdom of the Franks was not included in Otto I's empire, and Otto I's domaine was not that of Charlmagne's. The only real similarity between the two 'empires' was an affiliation with the Papal authority -- The Pope -- and the suggestion that they were the continuation of a 'Roman Empire' in the west.|
|986||LOUIS V le Faineant [last Carolingian].||Reign of Ethelred 'the Unready' in England (978-1016).|
Danes conquor England (980).
Capetian Dynasty (987-1789)|
Capetian Direct (987-1328)
|987-996||HUGUES (HUGH) CAPET was the first Capetian monarch.|
|996-1031||ROBERT II, le Pieux.||Canute, first Danish king of England (1017-35).|
|1031-1060||HENR I I.||Reign of Harold I, the younger of Canute's two sons 1035-40.|
He defeated (1079) duc de Normandy, William, and supported William's son, robert Curthose.
|Norman conquest of England 1066.|
Norman conquest of Sicily (1072-91)
Domesday Book (1085) compiled in England.
First Crusade (1095) preched at Clermont Ferrand.
FIRST CRUSADE (1097-1099)
|1108-1137||LOUIS VI le Gros or 'the Quarrelsome' gained power over most of the barons.|
He was defeated at Brémule [Brenneville (1119) by Henry I of England. However, overall, he defeated Henry I's alliance with the Emperor Henry V, and stopped (1124) a German invasion.
Suger (d.1151), the abbot of St. Denis, became a close and talented advisor to Louis VI and his son, Louis VII.
|Pope Innocent II took refuge in France (1130).|
|1137-1180||LOUIS VII le Jeune, married (1137) and divorced (1152) Eleonore of Aquitaine).||
Geoffroi [Geoffrey] IV d'Anjou, [count of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine (1129)] married Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England; he conquered the duchy of Normandy in 1144 and was recognized as duke in 1145. |
SECOND CRUSADE (1147-1149).
Geoffroi IV d'Anjou gave his son, Henri d'Anjou the ducal title for Normandy in 1151. Henri d'Anjou married (1152) Eleanore [Aliénor] d'Aquitaine. Henri [son of Geoffroi and Matilda], comte d'Anjou and duc de Normandy acceded to the English throne in 1154 as Henry II, and began the the 'Angevin Empire' (1154-1214) as well as a longer lasting Plantagnent dynasty in England.
|1180-1223||PHILIPPE II, Auguste (son of Louis VII). Philippe I, Auguste, and Richard I, Coeur-de-Lion, of England went on the Third Crusade. Philippe Auguste began to dismember the Continental empire of the Plantagenets and united the kingdom's administration around Paris. Philippe's efforts were stopped by the return of Richard from the Crusades and captivity.||THIRD CRUSADE (1189-1191).|
Richard, Coeur-de-Lion died (1199) from a wound received while attacking a castle in Limousin, France. John I 'Lackland' became king of England.
|1202-04||Plantagenet Norman and Angevin domains were confiscated in Northern France.||Gothic cathedrals: Chartres (c.1194), Amiens (c.1200), Reims (1210).|
University of Paris chartered (1200 or 1215?)
FOURTH CRUSADE (1202-1204).
The Albigensian Heresy; heretics protected by Raymond, Count of Toulouse, and Trencavel, vicount of Béziers and Carcassonne. Simon de Montfort led forces against the heresy. The the Battle of Muret (1213) marked the last major military action of the crusade, and is where Pedro II of Aragon was killed trying to assist count Raymond.
|James I 'The Conqueror' reigned as king of Aragon 1213-1276. He conquered Valencia in an intermittent campaign (1233-1245), seized the kingdon of Murcia for Castile (1266) and pacified Aragon's frontier from Muslim attacks. He conquered the Balearic Islands (1229-1235), beginning the Anagonese Mediterranean empire.
|1214-1220||Philippe II Auguste defeated German Emperor Otto's allied force (German, Flemish, and English) at Bouvines (27 July). His son, Louis, had repeled an invasion force led by the English king John I at La-Roche-aux-Moines (2 July).||John I of England was forced to sign the Magna Carta (1215). The English barons invited the son of Philippe Auguste, Louis, to be king of England. Soon after Louis landed in England (1216), John I died (1216) and the most of the Barons switched their allegence to John's son, Henry III of England, who began his reign under William Marshal's guardianship (1216-1219).|
FIFTH CRUSADE (1218-1221).
|1223-1226||LOUIS VIII le Lion.||
|1226-1270||LOUIS IX, 'Saint Louis': followed the regency of his mother, Blanche de Castille. He defeated Henry III of England's invasion of France at battles of Tailleburg and Saints (1242). Plantagenet domains in southwest France were confiscated. Louis IX was captured during the Seventh Crusade (1248-54). Ransomed and returned to France, Louis yielded back some regions in southwestern France to Henry III of England at the Teaty of Paris (1259) [This made Guyenne distinct from Aquitaine]. Louis IX died during the Eighth Crusade (1270).
||Louis IX's established the second Angevin dynasty by making his brother Charles I de Anjou.|
SIXTH CRUSADE (1228-1229).
SEVENTH CRUSADE (1248-1254).
|1258||Treaty of Corbeil. French king renounced claims to Barcelona, Urgel, Cerdagne, Roussillon, and some other territories. In return, James I of Aragon ceded: Carcassonne, Foix, Béziers, Nîmes, Narbonne, Toulouse, and some other territories. All rights in Provence passed to Margaret, wife of Louis IX. Marriage was arranged between Philippe (son of Louis IX) and Isabella (daughter of James I).|
|1270-1285||PHILIPPE III le Hardi.||
Charles I de Anjou accepted the crown of Naples and of Sicily (1268-1282), beginning some tenuous 'Angevin' dynasties in the Mediterranean. A the 'Sicilian Vespers' (1282) popular revolt ended the Angevin reign on that island. Charles II d'Anjou (son of Charles I) continued to rule in Naples. |
EIGHTH CRUSADE (1270-1272).
Edward I 'Longshanks', king of England (1272-1307), reduced Wales (1276-84).
|1285-1314||PHILIPPE IV Le Bel |
Philippe IV' rule was marked by almost continious termoil. He had problems with the Popes, scandles within his family (labeled 'Tour de Nesle'), resentment of his increased taxes, and confrontations with English in Flanders, in La Manche [the Channel], and on the frontiers in southwestern France .
English defeated French and Castilian fleet at Battle of Winchelsea (1293).
French king 'confiscated' French territories under the English duke-king Edward I.
Edward I of England invaded northern France (1294, 1296, and 1297), in an alliance with the count of Flanders, who was attempting to win independence from France. The conflict ended in a truce.
French defeated Flemish uprising at Furnes (1297).
First well-authenticated convocation of the Estates-General (1302).
Flemish town-militia defeated French knights at the Battle of Courtrai ['Battle of the Spurs' (1302)].
Gascony was 'returned' to Edward I in 1303.
French crush Flemish militia at Battle of Mons-en-Pevele (1304).
Edward I of England temporarly subdued Scotland (1285-1307). During the Scotish wars, Edward I won battle at Falkirk (1298) [against William Wallace] using the longbow and cavalry charge. Edward I died on an expedition against Robert Bruce.|
Edward I's son, future Edward II of England (1307-27), married (1308) Isabella, daughter of Philippe IV of France. Edward II was dominated by court 'favorites', the first being Piers Gaveston (k.1312).
First French Pope, Clement V, took up residence at Avignon [began the 'Babyloian Captivity' of the papacy (1309-76)].
Jews harassed and expelled from France (1306).
Knights Templar organization destroyed by the French king (1313).
|1314-1316||LOUIS X le Hutin.|
He married (1305) Marguerite of Burgundy (1290-1325), who was accused in the 'Tour de Nesle' scandal and repudiated and inprissoned, where she was suffrocated.
Louis X's second marriage (1315) was to Clémence of Hungary (c.1293-1328). Four months after his death, Louis X's queen gave birth to a son, who lived only 5 days.
Louis X's daughter by his first wife was denied succession due to the traditions of the Salic Law.
|Edward II's forces were defeated at Bannockburn (1314) by Scots. |
|1316||JEAN I le Posthume|
The son born to Louis X's queen mentioned above.
|1316-1322||PHILIPPE V le Long.
He married (1307) Jeanne of Burgundy. She was also involved, with her sister Marguerite in the 'Tour de Nesle' scandal, and imprisoned at Dourdan. She was later decalred innocent and reconciled with her husband.|
Philippe V left no male heir and the Salic Law was invoked again.
|1322-1328||CHARLES IV le Bel.|
A small confrontation, known as the War of St. Sardos (1323) was fought between French and English in southwest France. Plantagenet domains in southwest France 'confiscated' a second time.
Charles married (1307) Blanche of Burgundy (c.1296-1326), who along with her sisters (who had married his brothers) was accused the 'Tour de Nesle' scandal. Blanche was imprisoned and remained there until she died. Her marriage to Charles was annuled by the Pope in 1322.
Charles IV's second marriage (1322) Marie of Luxemburg (1305-1324). He married a thrid time (1325) Jeanne of Evreux (d.1371).
Charles IV, like his brothers, left no male heir and the Salic Law was invoked for a third time.
Edward II of England continued inept rule under domination of Hugh Despenser (1322-26). Edward II defeated a challenge by the duke of Lancaster at Boroughbridge (1322), and proceded to humulate his queen. A resentful Isabella went to France (1325) and returned in 1326 with Roger Mortimer and 'foreign troops'. With help of English barons, Edward II was deposed (1327) and murdered in prison (1328). Isabella and Mortimer headed a Council of Regency (1327-1330) that ruled England in name of the young Edward III. |
Robert Bruce invaded English frontier and forced recognition of Scottish Independence (1328).
Valois [cadet Capetian line] Dynasty
|1328-1350||PHILIPPE VI of Valois.|
Philippe was the son of Charles de Valois, brother to Philippe IV. Since Philippe IV's three sons, though they became kings, died without male heirs, the French crown was granted to the heir of the cadet Capetian line of Valois. The tradition [or asserted rule] of excluding the female line was proclaimed for the third time during a twelve-year period.
French army crushed Flemish militia at Battle of Cassel (1328).
HUNDRED YEARS' WAR
Philippe VI of France continued advance into Plantagenet domaines in southwestern France (1337), which would be recognized later as the initial military operations of the Hundred Years' War.
Edward III destroyed French naval fleet at Sluys [Ecluse] (1340).
Intermittent truces were declared between France and England (1340-1345).
Edward III invaded France in 1346, and conducted a successful campaign that led to the crushing defeat of French army at the battle of Crécy (1346) and capture of Calais in the same year.
Black Death Plague hit most of France (1348).
Philippe VI purchased Dauphiné (1349).
Isabella advocated her son, Edward III's right in the succession to the French throne upon the death, without direct heir, of her brother Charles IV of France in 1328. French raised the restriction [twice previously asserted] of 'the Salic Law' denying inheritance of the crown through female line. |
Edward III overthrew Mortimer and assumed personal authority as monarch in 1330.
Edward III had paid hommage for his French lands to Charles IV (1320), and did so again to Philippe VI in 1331.
Edward III took advantage of civil war in Scotland to launch a military campaign to re-establish English rule. The French supported Scots' Independence from English rule. Edward III won a great victory over the Scots at Halidon Hill (1333).
Edward III retaliated against French encroachment into the English duke-king's territory in southwest France with an attempted invasion of northern France by way of Flanders, which was resisting French rule there. The Flemish encouraged Edward III to claim the crown of France, which he did in 1338. His claim for the French crown essentially defined the underlying issue of The Hundred Years' War in 1337. In preparation for a major offensive against France, Edward III formed anti-French alliances with princes in German territories as well as in Hainault and Holland.
|1350-1364||JEAN II Le Bon (son) succeeded Philip VI.|
Jean II was captured by the 'Black Prince' Edward, son of Edward III, at the battle of Poitiers (1356). Jean II was held for a large ransom and forced to sign Treaty of Bretigny (1360).
The dauphin Charles, son of Jean II, became regent of France.
|1364-1380||CHARLES V le Sage.|
Charles instigated many reforms and appointed Bertrand du Guesclin as Chief of the Army -- Constable. Eventually the French retook most of the land lost to England.
|Edward III of England died in 1377, and the English crown was awarded to Richard II (1377-1399), the son of the 'Black Prince', who had died in 1376.|
|1380-1422||CHARLES VI le Fou.|
Duc d'Anjou died (1380). Conflict between Louis d'Orleans and Philippe de Burgundy.
Charles VI became insane in 1392, and civil war broke out as well as war against England and Burgundians.
French (largely Burgundian forces) crushed another revolt in Flanders at battle of Roosebeke (1382)
A crusade of French and Hungrian knights were defeated by the Ottoman Turks at Nicopolis (1396).
1396 began a twenty-year truce between France and England.
Jean the Fearless, duc de Burgundy assassinated od duc Louis d'Orleans (1407)
Cabochian Revolt (1413)
Henry V took advantage of the French civil war and asserted a claim to the French throne. He invaded France in 1415 and won the great victory at the battle Battle of Agincourt (1415).
He quickly managed to re-conquor Normandy (1417-19) and parts of northeastern France.
The English objectives were aided considerably by the French civil war, which was even made worse for the French by the assisination of the Duke of Burgundy
Queen Isabeau signed the Treaty of Troyes (1420), disinheriting her son and establishing a claim for the English to the French crown upon the death of Charles VI. The treaty called for Henry V's marriage (1421) to Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI, to further reinforce the claim to the French crown.
Armed resistance remained against the English-Burgundian conquest. Supported by forces from Scotland, the Dauphin's army defeated a small English army at Baugé (22 March 1421). Henry returned to France and quickly captured some towns before engaging in a long siege of Meaux (October 1421 - March 1422), where he took ill.
The English scheme to acquire the crown of France was thwarted by Henry V dying at Vincennes in 1422, before Charles VI, who died a week later.
Herny V's young son, Henry VI, was accepted as 'king of France' only by followers of the English and Burgundian causes [such as the burgeses, the Parlement, and the University of Paris, as well as the Burgundians]. French who were opposed to the Anglo-Burgundian conquests supported the Dauphin's claim. These were known as 'Dauphinists', 'Orleanists', or 'Armagnacs'.
|Richard II of England experienced an uncomfortable reign, and was overthrown and ordered murdered (1400) in Prison by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, who became Henry IV (1399-1413), the first Lancasterian king of England. |
Henry IV successfully defeated Scottish invasion (1402), Welsh revolt of Owen Glendower (1402-09), and French incursion into Guyenne (1406).
Henry V (1413-1422) suceeded his father as king of England.
|1422-1461||CHARLES VII le Victorieux.|
Charles VII had refused to acknowledge the Treaty of Troyes, and declared himself the rightful king in 1422. However, he was powerless, and his partisans were defeated in the battles of Cravant (1423) and Verneuil (1424). While much of the south remained loyal, Charles VII was mockingly called 'the king of Bourges', where he held court.
The English partial conquest encountered some small setbacks as various uncoordinated French attacks retook some towns and castles. The Regent Bedford sought more forces from England and launched a further expansion of the conquest. In an effort to invade the stronghold of Charles VII south of the Loire, the English besieged the city of Orleans in 1428.
Jeanne d'Arc presented herself to Charles VII at Chinon, seeking to lead an army to relieve Orleans. After being examined at Poitiers, Jeanne was provided some forces and accompanied by a few capable military commanders to march to the relief of Orleans.
Siege of Orleans was raised (April 29-May 8 1429 ) by French army under Jeanne d' Arc. The French continued the Loire Campaign with victories at Patay (June 28), where John Talbot was defeated and captured, and capture of various towns along the Loire.
Charles VII received the formal sacrements at Reims (17 July 1429).
Jeanne led a failed assault (8 September) on Paris in which she was wounded.
In May, 1430 Jeanne went to the relief of Compiègne, which was being besieged by the Burgundians. She was captured on 23 May as she returned from a sally. She was sold to the duke of Burgundy and given to the English, who subjected her to a mock Church trial. Condemned by the tribunal, Jeanne burned at the stake (1431) by the English.
Recognizing the morale impact of Charles VII 1429 Reims ceremony, Bedford arranged to have Henry VI 'anoited' in Paris in December 1431. The ceremony only proved to be an embarassment and by 1432, English position in France deteriorated noticably with a series of local revolts and more competent French attacks on many undermanned English fortresses.
Treaty of Arras (1435) removed the vital Burgundian support to the English. The Regent Bedford also died the same year.
Charles VII recovered Paris (1336).
Charles VII issued the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which limited the Pope's influence upon the 'Gallican Church'.
The Praguerie revolt (1440) of some nobles against Charles VII was quickly resolved.
Treaty of Tours (1444) began a truce between England and France. Part of the treaty called for the marriage (1445) of Henry VI of England to Margaret d'Anjou, the daughter of duc Renee d'Anjou and niece of Charles VII.
To get the destructive, un-employed mercenary 'free-companies' out of France, Charles VII deployed his son, the Dauphin Louis, to fight against the Swiss. This led to a costly victory over the Swiss at St Jakob (1444). Louis concluded a treaty of alliance with the Swiss soon after.
Charles began (in 1445) a series of ordinnances that reformed the French army and eliminated the free-company mercenary commanders.
Major French victories over English at Formigny (1450) and Castillon (1453) win Normandy and Guyenne. English were driven from France except for Calais.
'Rehabilitation' trial of Jeanne d'Arc (1456).
|Reign of Henry VI (1422-1461) in England faced many difficulties. As he was only nine months old upon his accession, he was served by the regencies of his two uncles, brothers to Henry V. The duke of Gloucester was regent in England, while duke of Bedford was regent in English occupied France. After Bedford's death, Richard duke of York followed in that position.|
English dynastic war, the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487).
|1461-1483||LOUIS XI, married Margaret of Scotland, daughter of James I. Second wife, and queen was Charlotte de Savoie. Louis XI was a brilliant diplomat and relentless statesman, who maneuvered against an array of European powers. He crushed the power of Burgundy, bringing most of that ancient region back under France.|
|1483-1498||CHARLES VIII, son of Louis XI and Charlotte de Savoie, came to the crown at age 13. His older sister, Anne de Beaujeu, served as the Regent for the first years of Charles VIII's reign. The Regent exhibited great administrative skill; and by arranging the marriage of her brother, Charles VIII, to Anne, duchesse de Bretagne, Brittany was brought back into the French crown. Charles VIII was the last of the direct Valois line and the last king of the Middle-Ages in France. His temporary invasion into Italy furthered the introduction of the Renaissance into France.|
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