Final Phase (1422-1453)
Significance of the final phase of the Hundred Years' War
Generally the last, and decisive, phase of the Hundred
Years' War is not well covered in most modern English or American
histories of Western warfare. If not ignored completely, the
reconquests by the French army of Charles VII are given the
skimpiest summary treatment. Even popular French histories often
close the coverage of the military events with the arrival of
Joan of Arc, and suggest that this introduced a moral prerogative
which outweighed military factors.
More accurately, Yolande of Anjou, appears to have played a role as vital as that of Joan of Arc. It was Yolande who was constantly involved in the selection and promotion of the many who truly earned for Charles VII his later acquired sobriquet "the Well Served."
The final phase of the Hundred Years' War encompassed the obviously dramatic, first effective employment of gunpowder weapons (aside from the Hussite Wars of 1413-36) in Western Europe. What was special to the French artillery was not a secret technology. The improved gunpowder and gun manufacturing techniques were widely known throughout Europe. It was the organization and direction of the artillery arm by Jean and Gaspard Bureau, that enable the French army to prevail in rapid siege operations as well as in pitched battles.
The final phase of the Hundred Years' War contained two battles that ran contrary to the some of the touted themes of medieval warfare espoused by many military theorists.
This page provides links to topics related to understanding, and to the study of the Hundred Years' War. Although initial emphasis will be on French participants and focus will be on the final phase of the war, some topics will pertain to broader aspects of the long war. Topics will be continiously added, expanded and revised.
Hundred Years War, la guerre de cent ans